May 26, 2016
Our 9th episode features an evolving case discussion about a patient with eye movement difficulties. Dr. Ali Hamedani navigates us through the orbit, brainstem, and midbrain as we discern the structural and physiological problems that can impede extra-ocular movements. BrainWaves podcasts and online content are intended for medical education only and should not be used to guide medical decision making in routine clinical practice. Any cases discussed in this episode are fictional and do not contain any patient health identifying information. This episode was vetted and approved by Grant Liu. REFERENCES 1. Liu GT, Volpe NJ and Galetta SL. Neuro-Ophthalmology: Diagnosis and Management. 2nd ed: Elsevier; 2010. 2. Cornblath WT. Diplopia due to ocular motor cranial neuropathies. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014;20:966-80. 3. Chiba A, Kusunoki S, Obata H, Machinami R and Kanazawa I. Serum anti-GQ1b IgG antibody is associated with ophthalmoplegia in Miller Fisher syndrome and Guillain-Barre syndrome: clinical and immunohistochemical studies. Neurology. 1993;43:1911-7. 4. L. DR and G. PS. Approach to orbital disorders and frequency of disease occurence: W. B. Saunders; 1994. 5. Sanders DB and Guptill JT. Myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014;20:1413-25. 6. Brent GA. Clinical practice. Graves' disease. The New England journal of medicine. 2008;358:2594-605.